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» Frequently Asked Questions


  1. What is Litigation?

    Litigation (n.) is the process of taking a case through court. The litigation or legal process is most common in civil lawsuits. In litigation, there is a plaintiff (one who brings the charge) and a defendant (one against whom the charge is brought).

  2. What are Litigation Support Services?

    Litigation Support Services is defined as being all activities designed to prepare a lawyer to try a case. Litigation support involves the organization of documents, including paper-based document management, but increasingly through technology such as litigation support software and systems. Documents are organized into searchable databases for review and production.

  3. What is Document Imaging?

    Imaging is the process of converting paper documents into digital form using a document scanning software when run through a scanner.

  4. What is the meaning of OCR?

    OCR or Optical Character Recognition is a process that allows a digital document to be searched by key word or phrase and can allow a user to edit text.

  5. What is a Deposition Subpoena?

    A Deposition Subpoena is issued to summon a person to make a sworn statement at a time and place other than a trial - usually before trial. It may also require the party to provide copies of business records, documents or other tangible things.

  6. What are Court Filings?

    The act of depositing or filing documents with the court or with other public officials to become preserved as part of the official record. Often specific deadlines are imposed by which time the documents must be filed. Failure to meet the deadline may result in the imposition of late fees or may result in the document being excluded from consideration.

  7. What are Load files?

    A file that relates to a set of scanned images and indicates where individual pages belong together as documents. A load file may also contain data relevant to the individual documents, such as metadata, coded data and the like. Load files must be obtained and provided in prearranged formats to ensure transfer of accurate and usable images and data.

  8. What is Metadata?

    Meta-data is data about data. Meta-data captures data elements or attributes (author's name, file size, date created/modified, type, etc.), data about records or data structures (length, fields, columns, etc.) and data about data (where it is located, how it is associated, ownership, etc.). It is Electronic information about a file that travels with the electronic file and resides in the shadows of the digital document.

  9. What is Annotation?

    Annotations are the changes or additions made to a document using sticky notes, a highlighter, or other electronic tools.

  10. What is an Attachment?

    It is a memorandum, letter, spreadsheet, or any other electronic document appended to another document or email.

  11. What is a Boolean Search?

    Boolean Searches use the logical operators "and", "or" and "not" to include or exclude terms from a search.

  12. What is a Chain of Evidence?

    The "sequencing" of the chain of evidence follows this order: identification and collection; analysis; storage; preservation; transportation; presentation in court; return to owner.

  13. What do you mean by Re-duplication?

    Re-duplication is the process of identifying (and/or removing) additional copies of identical documents in a document collection.

  14. What is eDiscovery (ED; EDD; EED)?

    Also called "digital discovery", "electronic digital discovery", "electronic document discovery" and "electronic evidence discovery". Discovery documents produced in electronic formats rather than hardcopy.

  15. What is Encryption?

    The coding of messages to increase security and make transmission only readable by recipients with the ability to decode only by using the same algorithms.

  16. What is a Full Text Search?

    Every word in the ESI is indexed into a master word list with pointers to the location within the ESI where each occurrence of the word appears.

  17. What is the meaning of Hash?

    Hash is an algorithm that creates a value to verify duplicate electronic documents. A hash mark serves as a digital thumbprint.

  18. What is an Index?

    The searchable catalog of documents created by search engine software. Also called "catalog". Index is often used as a synonym for search engine.

  19. What is Logical Unitization?

    The process of human review of each individual page in an image collection using logical cues to determine pages that belong together as documents. Such cues can be consecutive page numbering, report titles, similar headers and footers and other logical cues.

  20. What is a Mirror Image?

    Used in computer forensic investigations and some electronic discovery investigations, a mirror image is a bit-by-bit copy of a computer hard drive that ensures the operating system is not altered during the forensic examination. may also be referred to as "disc mirroring", or as a "forensic copy".

  21. What is a Native Application?

    A Native application is any application used to create and view a particular application file type.

  22. What do you mean by Nesting?

    Document Nesting occurs when one document is inserted within another document (i.e., an attachment is nested within an email; graphics files are nested within a Microsoft Word document).

  23. What is Objective Coding?

    Extracting information from electronic documents such as date created, author, recipient, CC, and linking each image to the information in pre-defined objective fields. In direct opposition to subjective coding where legal interpretations of data are linked to individual documents.

  24. What is physical Unitization?

    Physical unitization utilized actual objects such as staples, paper clips and folders to determine pages that belong together as documents for archival and retrieval purposes.

  25. What is Proximity Search?

    Proximity search retrieves a word only when it occurs within a specific number of lines or words of another word.

  26. What do you mean by Redact?

    A portion of an image or document is intentionally concealed to prevent disclosure of specific portions. Often done to conceal and protect privileged portions or avoid production of irrelevant portions that may contain highly confidential, sensitive or proprietary information.

  27. What is Spoliation?

    Spoliation is the destruction or alteration of evidence during on-going litigation or during an investigation or when either might occur sometime in the future. Failure to preserve data that may become evidence is also spoliation.

  28. What is Subjective Coding?

    The coding of a document using legal interpretation as the data that fills a field. Usually performed by paralegals or other trained legal personnel.

  29. What is a Tagged Image File Format (TIFF)?

    Graphic files that portray a single page of a file for viewing purposes with a .tif extension (in the case of Multi-page TIFFs, output images can consist of multiple pages).

  30. What is a Unicode?

    Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language (using more than one byte to represent each character, Unicode enables most written languages in the world to be represented using a single character set).






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